que es un cyborg

Se suele hablar mucho de los cyborgs, pero no siempre sabemos realmente lo que son. A estas y a otras preguntas vamos a responderte. ¡Comenzamos!



¿Qué es un cyborg?

El cyborg es esencialmente un ser o criatura que lo forma materia orgánica y una serie de dispositivos cibernéticos, con el objetivo de que mejoren las capacidades de la parte orgánica.

La idea de un cyborg no corresponde con otros términos con los que normalmente se confunde. Nada de robot, androide o autómata. La palabra viene del inglés “cyborg”. Este es un acrónimo que apareció en la mitad del siglo pasado, donde se juntaron las tres primeras letras de las palabras “cybernetic y organism”. Así pues, en castellano “organismo cibernético”.

En sus inicios, se usó para la descripción de un ser humano cuyas capacidades pudieran ser mejoradas a la hora de sobrevivir en entornos extraterrestres. El ciborg es un concepto futurista que se encarga de describir a un ser humano que tiene mecanismos tecnológicos.

Actualmente, en la ciencia médica, podemos encontrar ya ejemplos de personas humanas que tienen dispositivos tecnológicos, por ejemplo, quienes llevan marcapasos, aunque en estos casos no se usa la palabra ciborg para hablar de ellos.

Usamos esta palabra más en la ciencia ficción. Muchas representaciones del futuro han tenido como protagonistas a los ciborgs. Podemos haberlos visto en el mundo del cine, la literatura, las novelas, los comics, videojuegos, etc.

Tipos de ciborg

La característica principal del cyborg es ser una combinación de organismo evolucionado y máquina, siendo una entidad diferente de sus predecesores como el robot, que por ejemplo es un aparato con relativa autonomía que puede adquirir cualquier forma según el uso que se le vaya a dar y el androide, que puede ser un robot antropomórfico sin elementos orgánicos o un humanoide manufacturado tecnológicamente a partir de varios elementos, entre los que están las sustancias orgánicas.

La diferencia principal entre un ciborg y un androide es el porcentaje de partes que son tecnológicas y orgánicas. Esto se podía ver claro en el Terminator T-100 de la película Terminador 2: Judgment Day, donde era un robot entero y en la primera Terminator, era un robot que estaba recubierto de piel.

En el caso del Robocop de la película de Paul Verhoeven, cuenta con una serie de órganos humanos sobre los que se establecen unas extremidades bastante poderosas realizadas en metal. Aquí podrás ver películas de robots.

Los androides pueden ser un robot que tenga apariencia humana, pero sin contar con elementos orgánicos o un humanoide fabricado con una tecnología que mezcla las partes mecánicas y las sustancias de carácter orgánico.

Estamos ante un error bastante común, pues se suelen confundir estas tres entidades, ya que son creaciones artificiales las tres, pero con diferente esencia. De entre estos tres tipos, el único del que podemos decir que entra en un terreno más de especulación que de realidad es el androide.

Hay que tener en cuenta que desde hace ya muchos años vemos robots en la industria y en sitios tan variados como en la policía, ejército, carrera espacial o hasta explorando el mar. Si vamos a los ciborgs, está claro que una persona que tiene un corazón artificial, prótesis cibernéticas, aparatos auxiliares para oír y demás, es un ciborg.

Ejemplos de ciborgs

El mundo del cine nos ha dado numerosos ejemplos de ciborgs. Desde el Iron Mán de los años sesenta, pasando por el primigenio Spider-Man, el hombre nuclear, la mujer biónica, a otros de sobra conocidos como Darth Vader de Star Wars, el Inspector Gadget, The Borg en Star Trek o Robocop.

Lo cierto es que la figura del ciborg es bastante atractiva para el mundo fantástico y estamos seguros de que van a seguir naciendo nuevos personajes para el comic, literatura y el séptimo arte.


iron man ciborg

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